Autonomy Learning in The Praxis of Language Education: A Systematic Review

Rina Husnaini Febriyanti(1*),

(1) Universitas Indraprasta PGRI
(*) Corresponding Author


The rapid increase of technology has transformed the praxis of language education and linked to the construct of autonomy learning. It is believed that the great technology accommodated the language learners to achieve their goals and aims. However, this statement is still debatable in language instruction. Given the previous consideration, the purpose of this study was to explore by reviewing 23 articles focusing on the autonomy learning issues that scholars or researchers discussed in their papers. The used research method in this manuscript was a systematic review. This study investigated six prior subheadings: the change number varies by year, the foci and purposes, countries where the articles were published, the applied research methods and data collection tools, the occupied sample group, sample size, and the adopted method theoretical frameworks and dimensions. The data collection was taken by categorizing the six subheadings and analyzing them by presenting bar graphics, figure maps, and tables. The study revealed various insights related to autonomy learning, such as still in the recent trending issue, applicable in multiple approaches, potentially in the sundry of theoretical frameworks, elaborating in numerous dimensions, with ample applied research methods, and so forth. In addition, the implication of this study considerably can be useful for the freshmen or sophomore researchers to gain state of the art or novelty before conducting research or publishing papers specifically on the topic of autonomy learning in the praxis of language education.

Keywords: Autonomy Learning; Language Education; Systematic Review

Full Text:



Ahmadianzadeh, Bijan, et al. “Exploring EFL Teachers’ Beliefs about and Practices of Learner Autonomy across Experience and Licensure.” Innovation in Language Learning and Teaching, vol. 14, no. 2, Taylor & Francis, 2020, pp. 97–113, doi:10.1080/17501229.2018.1501694.

Almusharraf, Norah. “Teachers’ Perspectives on Promoting Learner Autonomy for Vocabulary Development: A Case Study.” Cogent Education, vol. 7, no. 1, Cogent, 2020, doi:10.1080/2331186X.2020.1823154.

Altinpulluk, Hakan, and Mehmet Kesim. “A Systematic Review of the Tendencies in the Use of Learning Management Systems.” Turkish Online Journal of Distance Education, vol. 22, no. 3, 2021, pp. 1–14, doi:10.17718/tojde.961812.

Basri, Fatma. “Factors Influencing Learner Autonomy and Autonomy Support in a Faculty of Education.” Teaching in Higher Education, vol. 0, no. 0, Taylor & Francis, 2020, pp. 1–16, doi:10.1080/13562517.2020.1798921.

Benson, Phil. “Autonomy in Language Teaching and Learning.” Language Teaching, vol. 40, no. 1, 2007, pp. 21–40, doi:10.1017/S0261444806003958.

Borg, Simon, and Yousif Alshumaimeri. “Language Learner Autonomy in a Tertiary Context: Teachers’ Beliefs and Practices.” Language Teaching Research, vol. 23, no. 1, 2019, pp. 9–38, doi:10.1177/1362168817725759.

Cirocki, Andrzej, and Syafi’ul Anam. “‘How Much Freedom Do We Have?’ The Perceived Autonomy of Secondary School EFL Teachers i n Indonesia.” Language Teaching Research, 2021, pp. 1–26, doi:10.1177/13621688211007472.

Ding, Yan, and Huizhong Shen. “Delving into Learner Autonomy in an EFL MOOC in China: A Case Study.” Computer Assisted Language Learning, vol. 0, no. 0, Taylor & Francis Ltd., 2019, pp. 1–23, doi:10.1080/09588221.2019.1681464.

Fadaee, Elaheh, et al. “The Relationship between Autonomy, Second Language Teaching Styles, and Personality Traits: A Case Study of Iranian EFL Teachers.” Cogent Education, vol. 8, no. 1, Cogent, 2021, doi:10.1080/2331186X.2021.1881203.

Judy Shih, Hui chia. “The Use of Individual and Collaborative Learning Logs and Their Impact on the Development of Learner Autonomy in the EFL Classroom in Taiwan.” Innovation in Language Learning and Teaching, vol. 15, no. 3, Taylor & Francis Ltd., 2021, pp. 195–209, doi:10.1080/17501229.2020.1737703.

Lai, Chun. “Technology and Learner Autonomy: An Argument in Favor of the Nexus of Formal and Informal Language Learning.” Annual Review of Applied Linguistics, vol. 39, 2019, pp. 52–58, doi:10.1017/S0267190519000035.

Little, David. “Language Learner Autonomy: Rethinking Language Teaching.” Language Teaching, Oxford/New York Pergamon Press, 2020, doi:10.1017/S0261444820000488.

Lou, Nigel Mantou, et al. “Complementary Perspectives on Autonomy in Self-Determination Theory and Language Learner Autonomy.” TESOL Quarterly, vol. 52, no. 1, 2018, pp. 210–20, doi:10.1002/tesq.403.

Manzano Vázquez, Borja. “Teacher Development for Autonomy: An Exploratory Review of Language Teacher Education for Learner and Teacher Autonomy.” Innovation in Language Learning and Teaching, vol. 12, no. 4, Taylor & Francis, 2018, pp. 387–98, doi:10.1080/17501229.2016.1235171.

Moradi, Hamzeh. “An Exploration of Autonomy, Agency and Identity in EFL Contexts.” English Today, vol. 3, no. 2020, 2020, pp. 1–3, doi:10.1017/s026607842000053x.

Ozer, Omer, and Ceyhun Yukselir. “‘Am I Aware of My Roles as a Learner?’ The Relationships of Learner Autonomy, Self-Direction and Goal Commitment to Academic Achievement among Turkish EFL Learners.” Language Awareness, vol. 0, no. 0, Routledge, 2021, pp. 1–20, doi:10.1080/09658416.2021.1936539.

Peek, Ron. “Exploring Learner Autonomy: Language Learning Locus of Control in Multilinguals.” International Journal of Multilingualism, vol. 13, no. 2, Taylor & Francis, 2016, pp. 230–48, doi:10.1080/14790718.2015.1090991.

Reinders, Hayo. “Technology and Autonomy.” The TESOL Encyclopedia of English Language Teaching, 2018, pp. 1–5, doi:10.1002/9781118784235.eelt0433.

Şenbayrak, Mürüvvet, et al. “An Exploratory Study on Turkish EFL Learners’ Readiness for Autonomy and Attitudes toward Self-Access Centers.” TESOL Journal, vol. 10, no. 2, 2019, doi:10.1002/tesj.401.

Shabbani, Mohammad Bagher, et al. “Undergraduate Students’ Emotional Intelligence and Their Perceptions of Learner Autonomy: Interface between Social Science and English Language Students.” Cogent Education, vol. 7, no. 1, Cogent, 2020, doi:10.1080/2331186X.2020.1850194.

Stockwell, Glenn, and Hayo Reinders. “Technology, Motivation and Autonomy, and Teacher Psychology in Language Learning: Exploring the Myths and Possibilities.” Annual Review of Applied Linguistics, vol. 39, 2019, pp. 40–51, doi:10.1017/S0267190519000084.

Teng, Feng. “Autonomy, Agency, and Identity in Teaching and Learning English as a Foreign Language.” Autonomy, Agency, and Identity in Teaching and Learning English as a Foreign Language, Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd., 2018, doi:10.1007/978-981-13-0728-7.

Tsai, Yea Ru. “Promotion of Learner Autonomy within the Framework of a Flipped EFL Instructional Model: Perception and Perspectives.” Computer Assisted Language Learning, vol. 0, no. 0, Routledge, 2019, pp. 1–32, doi:10.1080/09588221.2019.1650779.

Tseng, Wen Ta, et al. “Vocabulary Learning in Virtual Environments: Learner Autonomy and Collaboration.” System, vol. 88, Elsevier Ltd, 2020, p. 102190, doi:10.1016/j.system.2019.102190.

Wang, Na, et al. “Blended Learning for Chinese University EFL Learners: Learning Environment and Learner Perceptions.” Computer Assisted Language Learning, vol. 34, no. 3, Routledge, 2021, pp. 297–323, doi:10.1080/09588221.2019.1607881.

Wang, Yi, and Jonathon Ryan. “The Complexity of Control Shift for Learner Autonomy: A Mixed-Method Case Study of Chinese EFL Teachers’ Practice and Cognition.” Language Teaching Research, 2020, doi:10.1177/1362168820957922.

Xu, Shuyan, et al. “Multilateral Interactive Teaching Model for Improving Foreign Language Learners’ Autonomous Learning Ability by Using Multimedia Network Technology.” International Journal of Electrical Engineering Education, 2021, doi:10.1177/0020720920986077.

Yang, Yu Fen. “Self-Directed Learning to Develop Autonomy in an Online ESP Community.” Interactive Learning Environments, vol. 24, no. 7, 2016, pp. 1629–46, doi:10.1080/10494820.2015.1041402.

Yang, Yu Fen, and Nai Cheng Kuo. “Blended Learning to Foster EFL College Students’ Global Literacy.” Computer Assisted Language Learning, vol. 0, no. 0, Routledge, 2021, pp. 1–22, doi:10.1080/09588221.2021.1900874.

Zarrinabadi, Nourollah, et al. “Autonomy Support Predicts Language Mindsets: Implications for Developing Communicative Competence and Willingness to Communicate in EFL Classrooms.” Learning and Individual Differences, vol. 86, no. February, Elsevier Inc., 2021, p. 101981, doi:10.1016/j.lindif.2021.101981.


Article Metrics

Abstract Views : 472 | PDF Views : 298


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.

Universitas Indraprasta PGRI

Address: Kampus B Universitas Indraprasta PGRI Jl. Raya Tengah, Kel. Gedong, Pasar Rebo,, Jakarta Timur, Provinsi DKI Jakarta 
Phone: +62 (021) 87797409 - 87781300 | Close in sunday and public holidays in Indonesia
Work Hours: 09.00 AM – 08.00 PM
Best hours to visit: From 9 am to 11 am or after 3 pm. The busiest times are between 11 am and 3 pm.

Hortatori is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.