Drama Segitiga Karpman untuk Meningkatkan Kesadaran Diri Siswa terhadap Perilaku Bullying



Bashirudin Debipriamuda(1*), Dany M Handarini(2), M Ramli(3),

(1) Universitas Negeri Malang
(2) Universitas Negeri Malang
(3) Universitas Negeri Malang
(*) Corresponding Author

Abstract


Bullying is one of the events that repeatedly arises in schools and associated to varies between individuals. One of the sources of bullying is the poor self-awareness held by students. Self-awareness is one of the students skill must acquire. However, in reality there are still many students who have poor self-awareness. This study tries to investigate the effectiveness of the Karpman Drama Triangle to build up students self-awareness using Quasi Experiment Design. The research subjects consisted of 15 junior high school students who had poor self-awareness. The results of the study indicated that the Karpman Drama Triangle was useful in enhancing students self-awareness to reduce bullying behavior. It also informs us that the Karpman Drama Triangle can be an option to develop students self-awareness in reducing conflicts and bullying behavior that exists between students. The difference in the status of self-awareness between students before and after treatment is expressed is also illustrated. The Karpman Drama Triangle can be an alternative solution for handling and facilitating students who have poor social interaction and growing conflict situations towards peacefully.


Keywords


Karpman drama triangle; self-awarness; bullying behaviour; students conflict resolution

References


Arseneault, L., Bowes, L., & Shakoor, S. (2010). Bullying victimization in youths and mental health problems: Much ado about nothing? Psychological Medicine, 40(5), 717-729. doi:10.1017/S0033291709991383

Asfarina, L. A. M. (2014). Fleksibilitas Ekspresi Status Ego sebagai Fungsi dari Teknik Cangkrukan dan Drama Segitiga Karpman pada Siswa SMP. (Bachelor), Fakultas Ilmu Pendidikan Universitas Negeri Malang, Malang.

Baldry, A. C. (2003). Bullying in schools and exposure to domestic violence. Child Abuse and Neglect, 27(7), 713-732. doi:10.1016/S0145-2134(03)00114-5

Barrow, G. (2007). Transactional analysis, pastoral care and education. Pastoral Care in Education, 25(1), 21-25.

Beatty, B. (1998). From laws of learning to a science of values: Efficiency and morality in Thorndike's educational psychology. American Psychologist, 53(10), 1145.

Blaauw, E., Winkel, F. W., & Kerkhof, A. J. F. M. (2001). Bullying and suicidal behavior in jails. Criminal Justice and Behavior, 28(3), 279-299.

Boulton, M. J., & Underwood, K. (1992). Bully/Victim Problems Among Middle School Children. British Journal of Educational Psychology, 62(1), 73-87. doi:10.1111/j.2044-8279.1992.tb01000.x

Brunstein Klomek, A., Marrocco, F., Kleinman, M., Schonfeld, I. S., & Gould, M. S. (2007). Bullying, depression, and suicidality in adolescents. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 46(1), 40-49. doi:10.1097/01.chi.0000242237.84925.18

Burgess, R. C. (2005). A model for enhancing individual and organisational learning of ‘emotional intelligence’: The drama and winner's triangles. Social Work Education, 24(1), 97-112.

Carr, A. (1989). Countertransference to families where child abuse has occurred. Journal of Family Therapy, 11(1), 87-97. doi:10.1046/j..1989.00335.x

Cartney, P., & Rouse, A. (2006). The emotional impact of learning in small groups: highlighting the impact on student progression and retention. Teaching in Higher education, 11(1), 79-91.

Cason, H. (1924). Criticisms of the Laws of Exercise and Effect. Psychological Review, 31(5), 397.

Choy, A. (1990). The winner's triangle. Transactional Analysis Journal, 20(1), 40-46.

Church, A. H. (1997). Managerial self-awareness in high-performing individuals in organizations. Journal of Applied Psychology, 82(2), 281.

Clarkson, P. (1987). The bystander role. Transactional Analysis Journal, 17(3), 82-87.

Cook, C. R., Williams, K. R., Guerra, N. G., Kim, T. E., & Sadek, S. (2010). Predictors of bullying and victimization in childhood and adolescence: A meta-analytic investigation. School Psychology Quarterly, 25(2), 65-83. doi:10.1037/a0020149

Craig, W. M. (1998). The relationship among bullying, victimization, depression, anxiety, and aggression in elementary school children. Personality and Individual Differences, 24(1), 123-130.

Creswell, J. W., & Clark, V. L. P. (2017). Designing and conducting mixed methods research. USA: Sage publications.

Dahnur, H. (2018). Siswi SMP Di-"bully", Pihak Sekolah Minta Rekaman Videonya Dihapus. Kompas.com. Retrieved from https://regional.kompas.com/read/2018/01/20/23210791/siswi-smp-di-bully-pihak-sekolah-minta-rekaman-videonya-dihapus

Domino, M. (2013). Measuring the impact of an alternative approach to school bullying. Journal of school health, 83(6), 430-437.

English, F. (1976). Differentiating victims in the drama triangle. Transactional Analysis Bulletin, 6(4), 384-386.

Espelage, D. L., Bosworth, K., & Simon, T. R. (2000). Examining the social context of bullying behaviors in early adolescence. Journal of Counseling and Development, 78(3), 326-333. doi:10.1002/j.1556-6676.2000.tb01914.x

Espelage, D. L., & Swearer, S. M. (2003). Research on School Bullying and Victimization: What Have We Learned and Where Do We Go From Here? School Psychology Review, 32(3), 365-383.

Fluerentin, E. (2012). Latihan Kesadaran Diri (Self Awareness) Dan Kaitannya Dengan Penumbuhan Karakter. Jurnal Inspirasi Pendidikan, 1(1), 9-18.

Fulkerson, M. (2003). Integrating The Karpman Drama Triangle With Choice Theory and Reality Therapy. International Journal of Reality Therapy, 23(1).

Gallagher, S. (2000). Philosophical conceptions of the self: implications for cognitive science. Trends in cognitive sciences, 4(1), 14-21.

Gillies-Rezo, S., & Bosacki, S. (2003). Invisible Bruises: Kindergartners' perceptions of bullying. International Journal of Children's Spirituality, 8(2), 163-177.

Giorgi, G., Perminienė, M., Montani, F., Fiz-Perez, J., Mucci, N., & Arcangeli, G. (2016). Detrimental effects of workplace bullying: impediment of self-management competence via psychological distress. Frontiers in psychology, 7, 60.

Glew, G., Rivara, F., & Feudtner, C. (2000). Bullying: children hurting children. Pediatrics in Review, 21(6), 183-190.

Goleman, D. (2004). Emotional intelligence: Why it can matter more than IQ: & Working with emotional intelligence: Bloomsbury.

Hamdi, I. (2016). Diduga Korban Bullying, Siswa SD Ini Kejang-kejang. Tempo.Co. Retrieved from https://metro.tempo.co/read/813091/diduga-korban-bullying-siswa-sd-ini-kejang-kejang/full&view=ok

Hart, P. M., Cotton, P., & Scollay, C. E. (2015). 14. Flourishing at work: improving wellbeing and engagement. Flourishing in life, work and careers: Individual wellbeing and career experiences, 281.

Hawker, L. (2000). The drama triangle in the treatment of domestic violence. Transactional Analysis Journal, 30(2), 139-144.

Hinduja, S., & Patchin, J. W. (2010). Bullying, cyberbullying, and suicide. Archives of Suicide Research, 14(3), 206-221. doi:10.1080/13811118.2010.494133

Houghton, J. D., & Neck, C. P. (2002). The revised self-leadership questionnaire: Testing a hierarchical factor structure for self-leadership. Journal of Managerial psychology, 17(8), 672-691.

Hugh‐Jones, S., & Smith, P. K. (1999). Self‐reports of short‐and long‐term effects of bullying on children who stammer. British Journal of Educational Psychology, 69(2), 141-158.

Hutchinson, M., & Hurley, J. (2013). Exploring leadership capability and emotional intelligence as moderators of workplace bullying. Journal of Nursing Management, 21(3), 553-562.

Kaltiala-Heino, R., Rimpelä, M., Rantanen, P., & Rimpelä, A. (2000). Bullying at school - An indicator of adolescents at risk for mental disorders. Journal of Adolescence, 23(6), 661-674. doi:10.1006/jado.2000.0351

Karpman, S. (1968). Fairy tales and script drama analysis. Transactional Analysis Bulletin, 7(26), 39-43.

Karpman, S. B. (2010a). Intimacy analysis today: The intimacy scale and the personality pinwheel. Transactional Analysis Journal, 40(3-4), 224-242.

Karpman, S. B. (2010b). The redecision triangle. In. New York: ITAA Paper.

Keenan, J. P., Wheeler, M. A., Gallup Jr, G. G., & Pascual-Leone, A. (2000). Self-recognition and the right prefrontal cortex. Trends in cognitive sciences, 4(9), 338-344.

Kondrat, M. E. (1999). Who is the “self” in self-aware: Professional self-awareness from a critical theory perspective. Social Service Review, 73(4), 451-477.

KPAI. (2016). Rincian Data Kasus Berdasarkan Klaster Perlindungan Anak, 2011-2016. Retrieved from: http://bankdata.kpai.go.id/tabulasi-data/data-kasus-per-tahun/rincian-data-kasus-berdasarkan-klaster-perlindungan-anak-2011-2016

L'Abate, L. (2009). The drama triangle: An attempt to resurrect a neglected pathogenic model in family therapy theory and practice. The American Journal of Family Therapy, 37(1), 1-11.

L'Abate, L., Weeks, G. R., & Weeks, K. G. (1977). Protectiveness, persecution, and powerlessness. American Journal of Family Therapy, 5(2), 72-76.

Lewis, D. (2004). Bullying at work: The impact of shame among university and college lecturers. British Journal of Guidance & Counselling, 32(3), 281-299.

MacIntosh, J. (2005). Experiences of workplace bullying in a rural area. Issues in Mental Health Nursing, 26(9), 893-910.

McCormick, P. (1995). Redecisions required for mental health. Transactional Analysis Journal, 25(4), 321-326.

McKeachie, W. J. (1974). The decline and fall of the laws of learning. Educational Researcher, 3(3), 7-11.

Namka, L. (2004). The Tree Role of Victimhood.

Nastiti, T. F. (2016). Pengembangan Panduan Pelatihan Kesadaran Diri Melalui Drama Segitiga Karpman untuk Mencegah Perilaku Bullying Siswa SMP. (Bachelor), Universitas Negeri Malang, Malang.

Novak, E. T. (2017). Book Review: Into TA: A Comprehensive Textbook on Transactional Analysis. In: SAGE Publications Sage CA: Los Angeles, CA.

Nugroho, P. D. P. (2017). Siswi SD Ini Disiksa di Sekolah karena Menolak Keinginan Ketua Geng. Kompas.com. Retrieved from https://regional.kompas.com/read/2017/08/01/16165921/siswi-sd-ini-disiksa-di-sekolah-karena-menolak-keinginan-ketua-geng

Nurita, D., & Widiastuti, R. (2018). Hari Anak Nasional, KPAI Catat Kasus Bullying Paling Banyak. Tempo.co. Retrieved from https://nasional.tempo.co/read/1109584/hari-anak-nasional-kpai-catat-kasus-bullying-paling-banyak/full&view=ok

Olweus, D. (1994). Bullying at School: Basic Facts and Effects of a School Based Intervention Program. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 35(7), 1171-1190. doi:10.1111/j.1469-7610.1994.tb01229.x

Olweus, D. (2013) School bullying: Development and some important challenges. In: Vol. 9. Annual Review of Clinical Psychology (pp. 751-780).

Pellegrini, A. D., & Long, J. D. (2002). A longitudinal study of bullying, dominance, and victimization during the transition from primary school through secondary school. British Journal of Developmental Psychology, 20(2), 259-280. doi:10.1348/026151002166442

Pyszczynski, T., & Greenberg, J. (1987). Self-regulatory perseveration and the depressive self-focusing style: a self-awareness theory of reactive depression. Psychological Bulletin, 102(1), 122.

Rahmadya, O. (2016). Peningkatan empati melalui teknik drama segitiga karpman di Smp Ardjuna Malang. Fakultas Ilmu Pendidikan Universitas Negeri Malang, Malang.

Ramli, M. (1995). Konseling analisis transaksional. Malang: Proyek Operasi dan Perawatan Fakultas IKIP Malang.

Salma, F. N. (2017). konseling kelompok analisis transaksional teknik drama segitiga karpman untuk meningkatkan kemampuan interaksi sosial peserta didik. (Doctoral Dissertation), Universitas Sebelas Maret, Surakarta.

Salmivalli, C. (1999). Participant role approach to school bullying: Implications for interventions. Journal of Adolescence, 22(4), 453-459.

Salmivalli, C. (2010). Bullying and the peer group: A review. Aggression and Violent Behavior, 15(2), 112-120. doi:10.1016/j.avb.2009.08.007

Salmivalli, C., & Voeten, M. Connections between attitudes, group norms , and behaviour in bullying situations.

Salmivalli, C., & Voeten, M. (2004). Connections between attitudes, group norms , and behaviour in bullying situations. International Journal of Behavioral Development, 28(3), 246-258. doi:10.1080/01650250344000488

Sheehan, M. (1999). Workplace bullying: Responding with some emotional intelligence. International journal of manpower, 20(1/2), 57-69.

Shmelev, I. M. (2015). Beyond the drama triangle: The overcoming self. Psychology. Journal of Higher School of Economics, 12(2), 133-149.

Shoemaker, S. S. (1968). Self-reference and self-awareness. The journal of philosophy, 65(19), 555-567.

Silvia, P. J., & Duval, T. S. (2001). Objective self-awareness theory: Recent progress and enduring problems. Personality and Social Psychology Review, 5(3), 230-241.

Smith, P. K., & Brain, P. (2000). Bullying in schools: Lessons from two decades of research. Aggressive Behavior, 26(1), 1-9. doi:10.1002/(SICI)1098-2337(2000)26:1<1::AID-AB1>3.0.CO;2-7

Solso, R. L., Maclin, O. H., & Maclin, M. K. (2008). Psikologi kognitif. Jakarta: Erlangga.

Sommer, R. M. (2012). Manipulating & relationship triangles. Retrieved from https://www.therapyideas.net/manipulation.htm

Studer, J. R., & Mynatt, B. S. (2015). Bullying prevention in middle schools: a collaborative approach: collaborative, proactive anti-bullying interventions and policies that strive to create and sustain a safe environment for all adolescents. Middle School Journal, 46(3), 25-32.

Summerton, O. (1993). Three-dimensional transactional analysis: The drama triangle and the game pentagon. Transactional Analysis Journal, 23(1), 30-35.

Sutton, J., Smith, P. K., & Swettenham, J. (1999). Bullying and 'theory of mind': A critique of the 'social skills deficit' view of anti-social behaviour. Social Development, 8(1), 117-127.

Tehrani, N. (2011). Workplace bullying: The role for counselling. Bullying and harassment in the workplace: Developments in theory, research, and practice, 381-396.

Thapa, A., Cohen, J., Guffey, S., & Higgins-D'Alessandro, A. (2013). A Review of School Climate Research. Review of Educational Research, 83(3), 357-385. doi:10.3102/0034654313483907

Tomlinson, S. (1997). Edward Lee Thorndike and John Dewey on the science of education. Oxford Review of Education, 23(3), 365-383.

Veenstra, R., Lindenberg, S., De Winter, A. F., Oldehinkel, A. J., Verhulst, F. C., & Ormel, J. (2005). Bullying and victimization in elementary schools: A comparison of bullies, victims, bully/victims, and uninvolved preadolescents. Developmental Psychology, 41(4), 672-682. doi:10.1037/0012-1649.41.4.672

Verhave, T. (1967). Contributions to the history of psychology: IV. Joseph Buchanan (1785-1829) and the “law of exercise”(1812). Psychological reports, 20(1), 127-133.

Walsh, E. (2009). The emotional labor of nurses working in her Majesty's (HM) prison service. Journal of Forensic Nursing, 5(3), 143-152.

Waterworth, C. (2014). Winning, when dealing with bullies. Kai Tiaki: Nursing New Zealand, 20(5), 18.

Weisberg, M. S., & Weisberg, I. (2002). 30 Guidelines for Using Transactional Analysis in Clinical Social Work. Social Workers' Desk Reference, 163.

Whitney, I., & Smith, P. K. (1993). A survey of the nature and extent of bullying in junior/middle and secondary schools. Educational Research, 35(1), 3-25. doi:10.1080/0013188930350101

Wright, K. L., Etchells, M. J., & Watson, N. T. (2018). Meeting in the Middle: Eight Strategies for Conflict Mediation in Your Classroom. Kappa Delta Pi Record, 54(1), 30-35.




DOI: https://doi.org/10.26539/pcr.116

Article Metrics

Abstract Views : 922 | PDF Views : 518

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.




Copyright (c) 2019 Bashirudin Debipriamuda, Dany M Handarini, M Ramli

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.

 Publisher:
Universitas Indraprasta PGRI

Address: Unit Pelayanan Bimbingan dan Konseling (UPBK) | Jl. Nangka No. 58 C (TB. Simatupang), Kel. Tanjung Barat, Kec. Jagakarsa, Jakarta Selatan 12530, Jakarta, Indonesia. 
Phone: +62 (021) 7818718 – 78835283 | Close in sunday and public holidays in Indonesia
Work Hours: 09.00 AM – 08.00 PM
Best hours to visit: From 9 am to 11 am or after 3 pm. The busiest times are between 11 am and 3 pm. 


 Creative Commons License
Psychocentrum Review is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.



View My Stats