Academic Procrastination in College Students: Do Academic Burnout and Smartphone Addiction Matter?

Eko Sujadi(1*), Bukhari Ahmad(2),

(1) Institut Agama Islam Negeri Kerinci
(2) Institut Agama Islam Negeri Kerinci
(*) Corresponding Author


Academic procrastination is a behavior commonly exhibited by college students. The objective of this study was to investigate the impact of academic burnout and smartphone addiction on academic procrastination, both partially and simultaneously. A cross-sectional survey design was employed, involving 214 students from a state university in Jambi Province, Indonesia. We adapted the Short Form of the Academic Procrastination Scale, the Oldenburg Burnout Inventory – Student Version (OLBI-S), and the Smartphone Addiction Scale - Short Version (SAS-SV) for data collection. The data were analyzed using simple and multiple linear regression. The findings suggest that academic burnout and smartphone addiction are predictors of academic procrastination, with a stronger effect observed from smartphone addiction on academic procrastination. This research has significant implications for addressing academic procrastination by reducing academic burnout and smartphone addiction. Interventions targeting self-regulation could also be pursued, as they have proven effective across all variables examined. The implementation of guidance and counseling programs in higher education institutions should be optimized to cultivate an effective student lifestyle.


Academic procrastination, burnout akademik, kecanduan smartphone

Full Text:

PDF (English)


Abdi Zarrin, S., Gracia, E., & Paixão, M. P. (2020). Prediction of academic procrastination by fear of failure and self-regulation. Educational Sciences: Theory and Practice, 20(3), 34–43.

Aker, S., Sahin, M. K., Sezgin, S., & Oguz, G. (2017). Psychosocial Factors Affecting Smartphone Addiction in University Students. Journal of Addictions Nursing, 28(4).

Albursan, I. S., Al. Qudah, M. F., Al-Barashdi, H. S., Bakhiet, S. F., Darandari, E., Al-Asqah, S. S., Hammad, H. I., Al-Khadher, M. M., Qara, S., Al-Mutairy, S. H., & Albursan, H. I. (2022). Smartphone Addiction among University Students in Light of the COVID-19 Pandemic: Prevalence, Relationship to Academic Procrastination, Quality of Life, Gender and Educational Stage. In International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health (Vol. 19, Issue 16).

Alosaimi, F. D., Alyahya, H., Alshahwan, H., Al Mahyijari, N., & Shaik, S. A. (2016). Smartphone addiction among university students in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Saudi Medical Journal, 37(6), 675–683.

Alotaibi, M. S., Fox, M., Coman, R., Ratan, Z. A., & Hosseinzadeh, H. (2022). Smartphone Addiction Prevalence and Its Association on Academic Performance, Physical Health, and Mental Well-Being among University Students in Umm Al-Qura University (UQU), Saudi Arabia. In International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health (Vol. 19, Issue 6).

APA. (2013). Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders Fifth Edition (DSM-5TM). American Psychiatric Association.

Balkis, M. (2013). The Relationship Between Academic Procrastination and Students’ Burnout. Hacettepe Üniversitesi Eğitim Fakültesi Dergisi [H. U. Journal of Education], 28, 68–78.

Bandura, A. (1977). Self-efficacy: toward a unifying theory of behavioral change. Psychological Review, 84, 191–215.

Behzad, R. (2021). The relationship between smartphone addiction and procrastination. Annals of the Romanian Society for Cell Biology, 25(4), 8316–8323.

Çakır, S., Akça, F., Kodaz, A. F., & Tulgarer, S. (2014). The Survey of Academic Procrastionation on High School Students with in Terms of School Burn-out and Learning Styles. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 114, 654–662.

Chu, A. H. C., & Choi, J. N. (2015). Rethinking procrastination: positive effects of “active” procrastination behavior on attitudes and performance. The Journal of Social Psychology, 145(3), 245–264.

Curtis, C. (2017). Self-Defeating Behaviors. In Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Psychology. Elsevier.

Demerouti, E., Mostert, K., & Bakker, A. B. (2010). Burnout and work engagement: a thorough investigation of the independency of both constructs. Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, 15(3), 209–222.

Farkhah, S. B., Hasanah, M., & Amelasasih, P. (2022). Pengaruh Academic Burnout Terhadap Prokrastinasi Akademik Dalam Menyusun Skripsi Pada Mahasiswa. Conseils : Jurnal Bimbingan Dan Konseling Islam, 2(1), 47–57.

Ferrari, J. R., & Díaz-Morales, J. F. (2014). Procrastination and mental health coping: A brief report related to students. Individual Differences Research, 12(1), 8–11.

Franke, G. R. (2010). Multicollinearity. In Wiley International Encyclopedia of Marketing.

Haesevoets, T., De Cremer, D., Hirst, G., De Schutter, L., Stouten, J., van Dijke, M., & Van Hiel, A. (2021). The Effect of Decisional Leader Procrastination on Employee Innovation: Investigating the Moderating Role of Employees’ Resistance to Change. Journal of Leadership & Organizational Studies, 29(1), 131–146.

Hall, N. C., Lee, S. Y., & Rahimi, S. (2020). Self-efficacy, procrastination, and burnout in post-secondary faculty: An international longitudinal analysis. PLOS ONE, 14(12), e0226716.

Harriott, J., & Ferrari, J. R. (1996). Prevalence of Procrastination among Samples of Adults. Psychological Reports, 78(2), 611–616.

Hen, M., & Goroshit, M. (2018). General and life-domain procrastination in highly educated adults in Israel. Frontiers in Psychology, 9(July), 1–8.

Janssen, J. (2015). Academic Procrastination: Prevalence Among High School and Undergraduate Student and Relationship to Academic Achievement. Georgia State University Scholar Works Georgia State University.

Kim, K. R., & Seo, E. H. (2015). The relationship between procrastination and academic performance: A meta-analysis. Personality and Individual Differences, 82, 26–33.

Krejcie, R. ., & Morgan, D. . (1970). Determining Sample Size for Research Activities. Educational and Psychological Measurement.

Kwon, M., Kim, D.-J., Cho, H., & Yang, S. (2014). The Smartphone Addiction Scale: Development and Validation of a Short Version for Adolescents. PLOS ONE, 8(12), e83558.

Lee, J., & Choi, H. (2014). Relationship between perfectionism and academic burnout: Focus on the mediating effect of academic stress and academic procrastination. Journal of the Korea Academia-Industrial Cooperation Society, 15(11), 6556–6564.

Li, L., Gao, H., & Xu, Y. (2020). The mediating and buffering effect of academic self-efficacy on the relationship between smartphone addiction and academic procrastination. Computers & Education, 159, 104001.

Lian, P., Sun, Y., Ji, Z., Li, H., & Peng, J. (2014). Moving away from exhaustion: how core self-evaluations influence academic burnout. PloS One, 9(1), e87152.

Liu, F., Xu, Y., Yang, T., Li, Z., Dong, Y., Chen, L., & Sun, X. (2022). The Mediating Roles of Time Management and Learning Strategic Approach in the Relationship Between Smartphone Addiction and Academic Procrastination. Psychology Research and Behavior Management, 15(September), 2639–2648.

Loeffler, S. N., Stumpp, J., Grund, S., Limberger, M. F., & Ebner-Priemer, U. W. (2019). Fostering self-regulation to overcome academic procrastination using interactive ambulatory assessment. Learning and Individual Differences, 75, 101760.

Malinauskas, R., & Malinauskiene, V. (2019). A meta-analysis of psychological interventions for Internet/smartphone addiction among adolescents. Journal of Behavioral Addictions, 8(4), 613–624.

Matar Boumosleh, J., & Jaalouk, D. (2017). Depression, anxiety, and smartphone addiction in university students- A cross sectional study. PLOS ONE, 12(8), e0182239.

Mok, J.-Y., Choi, S.-W., Kim, D.-J., Choi, J.-S., Lee, J., Ahn, H., Choi, E.-J., & Song, W.-Y. (2014). Latent class analysis on internet and smartphone addiction in college students. Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment, 10, 817–828.

Mosavi hesari, Z., & Solgi, R. (2020). The role of anxiety in academic achievement and academic procrastination in predicting students’ academic burnout. Jspnay, 1(1), 48–59.

Munko, Y. (2017). Academic burnout among high-school students in Kazakhstan: The protective role of personality and academic motivation. Nazarbayev University Graduate School of Education.

Norouzi, N., Mohammadipour, M., & Mehdian, H. (2021). Relationship between goal orientation and academic procrastination with academic burnout with emphasis on the mediating role of academic self-regulation in nursing students. IJNR, 16(2), 69–78.

Ocal, K. (2016). Predictors of academic procrastination and university life satisfaction among Turkish sport schools students. Educational Research and Reviews, 11(7), 482–490.

Ojo, A. A. (2019). The Impact of procrastination on students academic performance in secondary schools. International Journal of Sociology and Anthropology Research, 5(1), 17–22.

Pala, A., Akyıldız, M., & Bağcı, C. (2011). Academic Procrastination Behaviour of Pre-service Teachers’ of Celal Bayar University. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 29, 1418–1425.

Panova, T., & Carbonell, X. (2018). Is smartphone addiction really an addiction? Journal of Behavioral Addictions, 7(2), 252–259.

Patrzek, J., Sattler, S., van Veen, F., Grunschel, C., & Fries, S. (2015). Investigating the effect of academic procrastination on the frequency and variety of academic misconduct: a panel study. Studies in Higher Education, 40(6), 1014–1029.

Rabin, L. A., Fogel, J., & Nutter-Upham, K. E. (2013). Academic procrastination in college students: The role of self-reported executive function. Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology, 33(3), 344–357.

Reis, D., Xanthopoulou, D., & Tsaousis, I. (2015). Measuring job and academic burnout with the Oldenburg Burnout Inventory (OLBI): Factorial invariance across samples and countries. Burnout Research, 2(1), 8–18.

San, Y. L., Roslan, S. B., & Sabouripour, F. (2016). Relationship between Self-Regulated Learning and Academic Procrastination. American Journal of Applied Sciences, 13(4 SE-Research Article).

Scheunemann, A., Schnettler, T., Bobe, J., Fries, S., & Grunschel, C. (2021). A longitudinal analysis of the reciprocal relationship between academic procrastination, study satisfaction, and dropout intentions in higher education. European Journal of Psychology of Education.

Schmidt, A. F., & Finan, C. (2018). Linear regression and the normality assumption. Journal of Clinical Epidemiology, 98, 146–151.

Schouwenburg, H. (2004). Academic procrastination: Theoretical notions, measurement, and research. Counseling the Procrastinator in Academic Settings.

Schouwenburg, H. C., & Lay, C. H. (1995). Trait procrastination and the Big-five factors of personality. Personality and Individual Differences, 18(4), 481–490.

Shareinia, H., seyed mohamadi, S. neda, Saadati, N., Rezadost, F., Mohammadian, B., & ٍEbrahimi, N. (2019). Assessment of Procrastination, Academic Burnout, Academic Performance and Related Factors in Nursing Students of Gonabad School of Nursing and Midwifery in 2016. Edu-Str-Med-Sci, 11(6), 12–19.

Shi, X., Wang, S., Liu, S., Zhang, T., Chen, S., & Cai, Y. (2019). Are procrastinators psychologically healthy? Association between psychosocial problems and procrastination among college students in Shanghai, China: a syndemic approach. Psychology, Health & Medicine, 24(5), 570–577.

Simbolon, P. A., & Daulay, N. (2022). The Effect of Smartphone Addiction on Students’ Academic Proscrastination. Jurnal Basicedu, 6(4), 5580–5688.

Simbolon, P., & Simbolon, N. (2021). Hubungan Academic Burnout dengan Prokrastinasi. Jurnal Pendidikan, 12(2), 96–108.

Sirois, F. ., & Pychyl, T. . (2016). Procrastination, Health, and Well-Being (H. S. B. T.-E. of M. H. (Second E. Friedman (ed.)). Academic Press.

Stead, R., Shanahan, M. J., & Neufeld, R. W. J. (2014). “I’ll go to therapy, eventually”: Procrastination, stress and mental health. Personality and Individual Differences, 49(3), 175–180.

Sujadi, E. (2023). Academic Procrastination (Analisis Pengaruh Stres dan Kecemasan Akademik melalui Efikasi Diri dan Self Regulated Learning pada Siswa Madrasah Aliyah Negeri Kota Sungai Penuh). Jambi University.

Sujadi, E., Fadhli, M., Kamil, D., DS, M. R., Sonafist, Y., Meditamar, M., & Ahmad, B. (2020). An Anxiety Analysis of Educators, Students and Parents Facing the New Normal Era in Education Sector in Indonesia. Asian Journal of Psychiatry, 53.

Sujadi, E., Fadhli, M., Meditamar, M. O., Kamil, D., Jamin, A., Yandri, H., & Indra, S. (2021). Generalized anxiety disorder associated with individual work performance of Indonesian medical personnel during COVID-19 outbreak. International Journal of Public Health Science (IJPHS), 10(1), 207–214.

Sujadi, E., & Martunus, W. (2018). Strategi Coping Korban Bullying. Tarbawi : Jurnal Ilmu Pendidikan, 13(2), 21–32.

Sureda Negre, J., Comas, R., & Oliver-Trobat, M. F. (2015). Academic Plagiarism among Secondary and High School Students: Differences in Gender and Procrastination. Comunicar, 22.

Talask, G., & Carvalho, M. R. De. (2017). Cognitive Behavioral Based Treatment for Procrastination. Psychol Behav Sci Int J, 8(1), 8–10.

Tekkurşun Demir, G., Halıcı, A., & Ötkan, C. Ç. (2017). Examination of burnout levels and academic procrastination of university students. SHS Web Conf., 37.

Ting, C. H., & Chen, Y. Y. (2020). Chapter 8 - Smartphone addiction. In C. A. Essau & P. H. B. T.-A. A. (Second E. Delfabbro (Eds.), Practical Resources for the Mental Health Professional (pp. 215–240). Academic Press.

Ulya, R., Indra, S., & Sujadi, E. (2020). The Effect of Coping Strategy on Academic Procrastination in Completing Student Assignments. Indonesian Journal of Counseling and Development, 02(01), 19–24.

Vargas, M. A. P. (2017). Academic Procrastination: The Case of Mexican Researchers in Psychology. American Journal of Education and Learning, 2(2), 103–120.

Wan, H. C., Downey, L. A., & Stough, C. (2014). Understanding non-work presenteeism: Relationships between emotional intelligence, boredom, procrastination and job stress. Personality and Individual Differences, 65, 86–90.

Wang, Y., Gao, H., Sun, chang, Liu, J., & Fan, X. (2021). Academic procrastination in college students: The role of self-leadership. Personality and Individual Differences, 178, 110866.

WHO. (2019). Burn-out an “occupational phenomenon”: International Classification of Diseases. World Health Organization.

Yang, X., Zhu, J., & Hu, P. (2021). Perceived social support and procrastination in college students: A sequential mediation model of self-compassion and negative emotions. Current Psychology.

Yockey, R. D. (2016). Validation of the Short Form of the Academic Procrastination Scale. Psychological Reports, 118(1), 171–179.

Zacks, S., & Hen, M. (2018). Academic interventions for academic procrastination: A review of the literature. Journal of Prevention & Intervention in the Community, 46(2), 117–130.

Zarrin, S. ., Akbarzadeh, M., & Mostafavi, M. (2019). The Role of Emotional Regulation and Academic Burnout in the Prediction of Academic Procrastination in Students. Cultural Psychology, 3(1), 175–192.

Zhang, J., Zhang, S., Liu, F., & Chen, W. (2022). Make Time for Employees to Be Sustainable: The Roles of Temporal Leadership, Employee Procrastination, and Organizational Time Norms. In Sustainability (Vol. 14, Issue 14).


Article Metrics

Abstract Views : 213 | PDF Views : 121


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2023 Eko Sujadi

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.

Universitas Indraprasta PGRI

Address: Unit Pelayanan Bimbingan dan Konseling (UPBK) | Jl. Nangka No. 58 C (TB. Simatupang), Kel. Tanjung Barat, Kec. Jagakarsa, Jakarta Selatan 12530, Jakarta, Indonesia. 
Phone: +62 (021) 7818718 – 78835283 | Close in sunday and public holidays in Indonesia
Work Hours: 09.00 AM – 08.00 PM
Best hours to visit: From 9 am to 11 am or after 3 pm. The busiest times are between 11 am and 3 pm. 

 Creative Commons License
Psychocentrum Review is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.

View My Stats